Problem solver in Aje
Solving problems and Looking
IT Choose 104
Some text and pictures in these photo slides were sucked from
Russel & Norvig's posted material
Problem Solving Agent
* Agent finds a task sequence to attain a goal
2. Requires problem formulation
* Determine aim
* Formulate problem based upon goal
* Searches for an action sequence that solves the problem * Activities are then carried out, disregarding percepts during that period
* Primary state
5. Possible actions / Heir function
5. Goal test
* Course cost function
* Express space could be derived from the initial state and the successor function
Example: Cleaner World
5. Environment includes two pieces,
A (left) and B (right)
5. Each sq may or may not be filthy
* A real estate agent may be in A or M
* An agent can understand whether a sq . is dirty or not
* A realtor may push left, maneuver right, pull dirt (or do nothing) * Issue: is this a whole PEAS description?
Vacuum World Problem
5. Initial state: configuration explaining
* position of agent
* dirt status of any and B
* Successor function
* R, M, or S, causes a unique configuration
* Goal test
* Verify whether A and B are not soiled
* Course cost
2. Number of actions
* two possible locations
2 x 2 combinations
( A is clean/dirty,
W is clean/dirty )
Sample Trouble and Solution
* Preliminary State: two
* Action Sequence:
Pull, Left, Pull
(brings all of us to which express? )
Says and Successors
* Primary state:
replacement, beneficiary function?
2. Goal test?
* Path cost?
Case: 8-Queens Trouble
* Location 8 queens on a chessboard so that not any queen disorders any other queen * Preliminary state?
5. Successor function?
* Aim test?
2. Path expense?
* Offered a set of spots, links (with values) between locations, an initial location and a vacation spot, find the best course * Initial state?
5. Successor function?
* Objective test?
* Path cost?
* Environment ought to be become static, deterministic, and observable * For what reason?
* In the event some of the over properties are relaxed, what happens? * Doll problems vs real-world problems
Searching for Alternatives
* Looking through the condition space
2. Search woods rooted at initial state
* A node in the tree is definitely expanded by applying successor function for each valid action 5. Children nodes are produced with a distinct path cost and depth * Come back solution once node with goal condition is reached
* Approach: specifies the order of node development
* Oblivious search strategies: no additional information beyond says and successors * Educated or heuristic search: extends " more promisingвЂќ states Evaluating Tactics
* will it always find a solution if one exists?
* Time difficulty
* volume of nodes made
* Space complexity
2. maximum number of nodes in memory
2. does it often find a least-cost solution?
As well as space complexity
Expressed when it comes to:
* m: branching component
* depends on possible activities
* utmost number of successors of a client
* m: depth of shallowest goal node
* m: optimum path-length in state space
Uninformed Search Strategies
2. Breadth-First Search
* Uniform-Cost Search
* Depth-First Search
* Depth-Limited Search
5. Iterative Deepening Search
* fringe can be described as regular first-in-first-out queue
2. Start with first state; after that process the successors of initial express, followed by all their successors, so onвЂ¦ 5. Shallow nodes first before deeper nodes
5. Optimal (if path-cost sama dengan node depth)
* Time Complexity:...
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